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发表日期:2017年09月21日 14:34:02       已经有位读者读过此文

中国垃圾填埋场恶臭影响人口和人群活动研究*


蔡博峰王金南龙 瀛李 栋王江浩4

( 1. 环境保护部环境规划院 气候与环境政策研究中心,北京 100012; 

2. 北京市城市规划设计研究院,北京 100045;3. 北京清华同衡规划设计研究院有限公司,北京 100085; 4. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101)


摘要: 恶臭是垃圾填埋场邻避效应的主要原因。解决垃圾填埋场邻避问题的基础性工作是较全面和准确地评估受其恶臭影响的人口和人群活动。利用 LandScan 1 km 人口空间数据、单位机构点源 GIS 数据和微博大数据等,基于中国每个垃圾填埋场基础信息和恶臭影响范围,以“自下而上”的研究模式较彻底地评估了中国受垃圾填埋场恶臭影响的人口、敏感单位和人群活动。研究结论表明: 受影响人口为 1 227. 52 万人,占全国总人口的 0. 90%,其中儿童 164 万,老人 100 万,即敏感人群( 儿童 + 老人) 人口总数达到 264 万。广东、湖南、四川受恶臭影响人口最多,天津、海南、西藏受恶臭影响人口最少。受影响敏感单位共计7 818 个,其中学校3 143 个,医院4 675 个。研究特色在于保证了微观层面数据的准确性和可靠性,即以每个垃圾填埋场自身数据为计算依据,不做太多参数平均化假设,同时又能较完整地覆盖全国所有垃圾填埋场,从而较为准确和全面地评估了中国垃圾填埋场恶臭的影响情况。试探性地使用了微博大数据表征人群活动强度,提供了此前难以或者无法获取的微观层面的人群活动信息,对于研究垃圾填埋场恶臭的影响具有重要意义。

关键词: 垃圾填埋场; 恶臭; 影响人口; 人群活动


ESTIMATION OF POPULATION AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES IMPACTED BY THE

ODORS OF LANDFILLS IN CHINA


CAI Bo-feng1,WANG Jin-nan1,LONG Ying2,LI Dong3,WANG Jiang-hao4

( 1. Center for Climate Change and Environmental Policy,Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning,Beijing 100012,China;2. Beijing Institute of City Planning,Beijing 100045,China; 3. Beijing Tsinghua Tongheng Planning & Design Institute,Beijing 100085,China;4. LREIS,Institute of Geographic Sciences & Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China)


Abstract: Odors are the main reasons for the NIMBY( Not In My Back Yard) phenomenon of the landfills. Complete and thorough estimation of the population and human activities impacted by the odors of landfills is the fundamental work for the solution of this issue. Using LandScan 1km population data,organizations GIS data and geo-located weibo big data,the population,susceptible organization and human activities impacted by landfill odors are evaluated based on detailed information of each landfill of China,as per the bottom-up methodology. The results showed that there were 12. 28 million people impacted by landfill odors,accounting for 0. 90% of the total population in China. The susceptible population reached 2. 64 million,including 1. 64 million children and 1. 00 million aged people. Guangdong,Hunan and Sichuan rank as the top three in terms of impacted population,while Tianjin,Hainan and Tibet rank as the last three ones. There were 7 818 susceptible organization impacted by landfill odors,including 3 143 schools and 4 675 hospitals. This study is highlighted by two features. First,the accuracy and reliability of data is ensured on each landfill without too many parameter assumptions. Second,full coverage and comprehensiveness is ensured on the national level. The numbers of impacted population were consistent with the numbers of weibos related to landfills at provincial level. Big data was tentatively used as the representative of human activities,which provided unprecedented information of ubiquitous human activity,and is very important for the study of impact of landfill odor.

Keywords: landfill; odor; impacted population; human activity